Speed: frontier of the hypersonic ageNeecenow will offer high levels of improvement to existing commercial airline services, this page explores the many benefits.
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Shock wave reduction
Supersonic Transition areas
Time zone departure times
Economic sectors opened via Neecenow
1. Reduced fuel consumption
Due to the short duration of hypersonic flight Neecenow uses one crew. Over transatlantic distances - an hours flight in an AFG or ARFG - in comparison, a subsonic airliner often requires two crews. The number of crews required for long distance flights of 10 hours plus rises to a two to eight crew ratio in favour of the AFG or ARFG versus the subsonic type.
This represents a $200,000 saving per roster calibrated from the Neecenow’s capability to fly a return leg on the 6 hour round trip, where 4 crews would otherwise be used on a subsonic flights 24 hour trip. Multiplied by 350, which is for days of the year the aircraft flies, equals $70 million savings to airlines on crew costs per aircraft. using this number a fleet of fifteen ARFG's would save the airline over $1 billion in crew costs.
3. Airport charges
Neecenow flies non-stop to every destination in the world meaning no stop-over with high-priced fuel and high landing fees. The type will also require fewer landings. This changes for landings on purpose for the purposes of connecting flights: Dubai for example has become a hub for flights from the Asiatic and Oceanic regions to various cities in Europe, rather than the traditional stop in London only, which had significantly increased the flight-times required to reach certain cities.
4. Cycles/Engine starts (mechanical wear and tear)
Aircraft are “aged” based upon take-off and landings, so an aircraft requiring a stopover leg is effectively halving its allowable flight times prior to maintenance from one that does not require a stopover.
10. Lower catering costs to airlines for each flight
Airlines will buy AFG and ARFG for these reasons:
The advantage of high-speed flight is not obvious to everyone – why spend billions of dollars on a difference of several hours? Such unanswered questions make the production of a faster airliner seem superfluous. The same argument be applied to the idea of new phones or other technology: benefits are not always obvious, particularly not to people who do not travel.
The fact is subsonic aircraft have nearly peaked in performance capability. Cars have reduced total average fuel consumption by nearly half the average fuel use per hundred kilometres (or, alternatively, doubled the average miles per gallon). In the same period aircraft have delivered only a small percentage of improvement. A new airliner enables the speed benefits available at this velocity to be capitalised upon.
It is not just in terms of the airliner where the speed is helpful economically. Some present journey times exceed 24 hours, which while not seemingly very long, a person’s physical and mental recovery time from this duration in a low pressure, dehydrating environment can exceed a week. The effect of a long flight can reduce alertness; interfere with diet, prolonged periods of abnormal fatigue and lower concentration levels in noticeable amounts. Professionally this can reduce the ability to communicate effectively, particularly when dealing with people where there are language or accent differences.
Generally, professionals who travel are the life-blood of the global businesses they represent. Business is affected in terms of proficiency during international business meetings, especially with existing intensive aspect of dealing with differing cultures, after experiencing present levels of jet lag. Speed is vital for commerce. Less than one per cent of the world’s population accounts for the way the rest of the world functions, if these people are not at their best, then the result of this is experienced globally.
With hypersonic travel, people can arrive on the other side of the world as fresh as per any working day. Neecenow gives an extra 2 days of holiday or business time. There are many tourists who are put off by long flight times, the time spent queuing exceeds 3 hours at some airports, the wait for departure, then a ten-hour plus flight, with two hours of customs at the end of it when people are exhausted. For travellers whose holidays are short, this means much of their holiday is spent recovering from the flight.
With business class express check in, executives can be at a meeting on the other side of the world in around than 5 hours from arrival at their departure airport. For those in economy, the increased security wait adds another hour. Given several hours for a meeting, business people can either journey return home that night, or the next day. The executives in most cases will be at home enjoying a meal with their family faster than a subsonic aircraft completes half the similar journey. This employee could have a day off to recharge, better than the present week or more lost to dehydration and fatigue prior to regaining full productivity.
Speed impacts maintenance costs; in aviation’s past, Concorde was three times more expensive to maintain, deterring customers. Neecenow is different because hypersonic speed is nine times faster than current services. This means the AFG and ARFG operational costs per hour can be nine times higher to equate to present air-fares. The hypersonic airliner makes operating costs cheaper due to the speed of the flight.
Concorde was not in mass production either – another factor in the higher operating costs: high purchase costs. If the sales of an airliner are slow or poor, more money is required to recoup the manufacturing costs. Interestingly, what the cynics will not publicly acknowledge is that older subsonic airliners cost as much as Concorde to operate, due to the increased maintenance requirements. Concorde was paying its way and making money prior to the July 25 2000 accident, which lead to its retirement.
Neecenow’s design features such as greater access doors, simpler structural, electrical and control design is a primary consideration. Maintenance costs will decrease over the life of the aircraft from the greater amount of knowledge amongst workers creating shortcuts and innovations, along with the airworthiness directive (AD) programme in engineering to prolong engine and airframe life, reducing operating costs. Historically this is the natural cycle, evident in the present subsonic world via the fact airfares are of a similar price now to those thirty to forty years ago.
Unlike present airline flights, Neecenow will use more satellite navigation rather than beacon orientated way-points for navigation. This will be triangulated with existing navigational aids to give more precision. Surprisingly today’s airliners still track directly to Non-directional beacons (NDB’s) unnecessarily burning millions of tonnes of fuel every year, increasing costs to airlines and passengers. Neecenow will use direct routing using triangulated bearings from such way-point beacons. Flight via the most direct track available must be made to conserve fuel, being the shortest distance between the two points. High altitude cruise levels using GNSS/GPS navigation for direct flights reduce delays and fuel burn.
Upgraded GPS and GNSS navigation services proposed using optical clock technology based systems means more accurate navigation and navigation prediction becomes possible, even at hypersonic speed. This type of system is easier to work when factoring certain limiting aspects of ground based systems at high altitude and speed. The system would use calibrations to overcome various facets affecting direct flight. Considerations to direct navigation are co-operation with various countries armed services permitting over flight of restricted areas, which are generally applicable to certain altitudes, as well as potential restrictions on over-flight at hypersonic speed.
Neecenow airliners will have a much greater corridor of flight altitudes for greater flexibility. Present airliners cruise between 28,000 through to 45,000 feet – just over 20,000 feet of available airspace, promoting congestion problems, since airliners share airspace with business and general aviation aircraft. Neecenow will have 60,000 feet of available cruising altitudes.
A hypersonic aircraft can benefit from certain aspects of operating at this speed.
1. Thermodynamically, using the RAM effect: air flowing into the intake at high speed compresses, heating it to a temperature that produces thrust. AFG and ARFG cruise speed of Mach 7.4 can yield 70% of the total required thrust fo cruise flight from compressive heating, reducing the amount of fuel required to power the aircraft. Effectively, the RAM effect recycles speed into thrust. The Mach 2 Concorde produced up to 40% - and the Mach 3 Lockheed Blackbird produced up to 60% - of cruise power, in this fashion.
2. The air at the Neecenow cruise height is extremely thin, meaning there is less aerodynamic resistance acting upon the aircraft over the duration of the flight. The level of turbulence and convection interference for the autopilot to overcome also leads reduced drag, via fewer control inputs by the aircrafts autopilot system, over less flight time, reducing drag and fuel burn. There is also comparatively more inertia at higher altitude due to the thinner air producing less drag.
3. Using the aerodynamic flow of the shockwave at hypersonic velocity to produce lift. By designing the aircraft to use the shockwave compression-lift increases the amount of lift, so the aircraft needs less lift to maintain level flight. The effect is comparable to driving downhill, or riding a wave. This reduces the required thrust and the amount of fuel burnt to maintain cruise speed.
Shock wave reduction
Shockwaves from supersonic types - also known as sonic booms - is an effect produced by an aircraft travelling faster than the speed of sound simultaneously pushing the air apart, compressing it with the force of the fuselage hitting the air sending the air outwards, as a pressure wave. This compression produces a wave similar to a bow wave from a ship, and is heard as a boom. The noise is actually a changing in air pressure which humans hear as a boom.
Different aspects affect the strength of the overpressure wave. These are from atmospheric differences, aerodynamic differences to the aircraft, and how the aircraft is being manoeuvred. This phenomena is not limited to aircraft flying in the Stratosphere, the North American XB-70 discovered sonic booms were audible at ground level from altitudes of above 70,000 feet.
Intensive design-work has been completed to reduce ARFG and AFG shockwaves, to limit the chances of any audible boom being heard from the ground, both from airframe design and airspace planning. The Aceson funded FXG Vancoollins will test the designs of fuselage and wing sections for differences in shock wave performance. from the test results further enhancements can be made to reduce or even eliminate the aircraft's shock wave.
AFG and ARFG airliners have been designed to reduce shockwave intensity, by reducing the N-wave, a measure of the amplitude or intensity of the shockwave reflections produced by the wings and fuselage by stretching and distorting the shockwave in ways to reduce its intensity: comparable to how Stealth-aircraft reduce radar reflection. Although there is a drag increase in designing-out the N-wave, it is necessary feature of any supersonic or hypersonic airliner and operating in the thin atmosphere at high altitude negates such penalties.
At both the AFG and ARFG Neecenow cruise speed the shockwave angle is much narrower. This means the cone behind the aircraft is not pushed to earth with as much intensity. The smaller cone dissipates the force of the shockwave and effectively increases its distance prior to reaching the ground. This has the theoretical result of reducing the intensity of any boom heard on the ground.
The lack of atmosphere from the 100,000 feet minimum cruising altitude up to 150,000 feet will also reduce the shockwave effects due to the vacuum-like nature of the atmosphere at this level. Shock waves have further to travel to get to the ground, with transitions through atmospheric layers distorting and depleting strength. This is due to there being fewer particles of air to push together, limiting the airs ability to conduct sound. Neecenow cruise altitudes increases the distance to earth also increases by ten kilometres over the formerly tested altitudes of up to 70,000 feet, this coupled with the tighter cone means there is a substaintial chance Neecenow airliners will not be audible from the ground.
Briggs has innovated software to ensure flight manoeuvres are computer limited to a fixed maximum angle of attack so as not to compress and intensify shockwaves.
Briggs development of the Supersonic transition area keeps the ascending and descending hypersonic aircraft over the sea or remote areas until the aircraft have slowed down. Neecenow airliners will operationally climb out at speeds below Mach 1.2 or less to high altitude before accelerating to cruise speed.
At Mach 1.2 or less, shock waves causing an audible sonic boom do not reach the ground. During transition to and from hypersonic speed where there is higher chances of shock waves reaching the ground in certain conditions, this flight will be conducted within a location known as the Supersonic Transition area, set in remote areas, over water or deserts away from city populations and busy airports.
Several other ways of reducing the super and hypersonic boom effect include using a special shaped nose cone to stretch and distort a circular boom forming. The FXG Vancoollins will trial a number of different nose cone shapes, as well as fuselage-shape technologies. Briggs will also consider integrating Gulfstream Aerospace’s extendable nose probe design should it prove viable. This patented design has shown to reduce supersonic boom intensity by over 20% for supersonic aircraft.
The FXG Vancoollins will also produce guidelines for operation and allow modifications to improve performances, leading to lower boom intensity and lower drag. It is hoped legal flight of Neecenow airliners over all the countries in the world will be obtained. Although loopholes exists for hypersonic flight, it is best Neecenow obtains an amendment to such laws, rather than the alternative deviations. Hypersonic flights can still occur with a total ban on overland hypersonic flight, by transitioning via the Poles and Mexico almost as fast as direct flights. The majority of flights will be over oceans already, and controlled further with Supersonic Transition areas.
Supersonic Transition areas
The sonic boom is most likely from Neecenow in its transition between Mach 1.2 and Mach 7.4. Briggs has developed airspace areas of remote land or ocean which are present around any international airport, even in Europe.
Supersonic Transition areas will be located between 50-100 kilometres away from city airports in sparsely populated regions. These will relieve the city population of any possible sonic boom activity, which might be heard in unusual weather circumstances. The other main purpose is for flight safely, to efficiently slow the Neecenow to a speed to be able to join with subsonic aircraft in an airport traffic pattern.
The actual descent of the Neecenow will be arriving and departing at the supersonic transition area above 50,000 feet and Mach 1.2, at which a sonic boom is not audible on the ground. The descent and deceleration will continue to the destination direct, turning as or if required. In comparison, thunder is not generally audible from over a ten kilometre distance, having a fifty kilometre buffer will mean population is not affected by Neecenow airliner transitions to and from hypersonic flight.
Time zone departure times
One of the biggest drawbacks to hypersonic flight is the effect of time zones on departure and arrival times. Common thought has it that a three hour flight is excellent, but problems occur within the standard acceptable curfew times at major cities of 6 AM to 11 PM, though some departures later in the evening are accepted. Problems apply particularly to airports with a 12 hour difference.
This aspect is governed by the noise produced by the engines if the AFG and ARFG is not able to meet statutory noise requirements for 24 hour operation departures, the airliners will only be able to occur at certain times during the day. Neecenow has numerous design advantages over present airliners which give it a high chance of being permitted to fly at any hour once in service.
Noise evaluations would reveal lower measurements from AFG and ARFG types over present airliners of about 20 decibels lower if the both were using existing engines, such as the General electric GE-90, due to the facets of Neecenow’s design. Due to the flight envelop of the Neecenow, noise increases may result from the power plants engineering considerations to increase thrust needed to meet performance requirements of lifting the heavy aircraft up to high altitude and speed.
If the noise exceeds legal night time departure requirements Neecenow flights will only be able to arrive and depart at certain times due to the differences of time at both destinations. The time in London is 6 AM, the earliest a departure could take place due to curfew times; it will arrive in Sydney at 7 PM. This means the only time slot available would 6 AM-10 AM to adhere to Sydney’s 11 PM curfew.
In the afternoon slots would be between 4 PM and 11 PM, to comply with Sydney’s 6 AM curfew.
This complicates flight slot development process and airport congestion should the Neecenow engines exceed 24 hour operational standards. Flight to and from other nations may have to be placed elsewhere to stagger arrival and departure loads.
Sample time zone conflicts
Assuming 6 AM – 11 PM curfew (excludes daylight savings time)
London is 5 hours ahead of New York
Flights departing London for New York window: 10 AM - 8 PM
Flights departing New York for London window 6 AM- 5 PM
Beijing is 12 hours ahead of New York
Beijing departure times
Morning: 6 AM – 9 AM
Afternoon: 4 PM - 11 PM
Departing at 7 PM Beijing time allows arrival in New York by Neecenow by 8 AM New York time (the date before, due to the International dateline). If 5 hours is taken for customs at both ends and a few hours for transit both ways and the meeting, it is possible for a business person to get back to Beijing by 10 AM the next day. This means a sleepless night, but important meetings can occur. The alternative is a 14 hour flight, staying at a hotel to recover and prepare; the meeting, then another 14 hour flight, conditions more draining in regards to productivity.
Economic sectors opened via Neecenow
The introduction of the Neecenow may be thought limited by curfew considerations mentioned above, although the initial of future variants of Neecenow, depending upon the engine noise results, may permit operation at night. The introduction of a transport where the most distant location is only three hours travel away, introduces the prospect of time-zone based economic communities.
Presently many countries have people who commute for longer than four hours per day, and with changes and improvements to airports current standards such as those already in place with first class check in, workers could travel across the equator to link up business expertise in design, management, construction and other beneficial elements to enhance businesses and return the same day.
This means North American, including the United States, Canada and Mexico become greater business partners with the countries in South America; China and Japan become greater business partners with South East Asia and Australia; India and Sri Lanka with Russia and Europe and the Middle East with Africa. These sectors can also triangulate to provide China with India, and Europe with South America and other combinations.
Although it may appear linking a wealthy country to a poorer one may be detrimental to the wealthier nation, it must be remembered poorer people require more commodities; if they had the money they would buy more, making wealthy business owners in wealthy nations wealthier. The conditions are mutually beneficial.
Lower GDP nations usually have lower average incomes, reducing the average annual wage which is a large component of production and manufacturing costs. Combining the business expertise available with Neecenow, and the low cost, high speed freight available from Briggs’s SF-series Tronolog, creates wealth for all. Trade will be worldwide and independent of nation, race or religion: true globalisation.
Neecenow will cruise at a speed of Mach 7.4. This is equivalent to just over 9000 kilometres per hour or 2.5 kilometres per second.
AFG and ARFG are essentially designed like submarines; inside it will be a pleasant, “shirt sleeve” temperature - a beautiful 22º C. Instead of water, the design keeps heat out of the interior. In this case instead of the heat coming through gaps in joints, it comes through transference - through the aircrafts skin.
Due to the heat from air friction, the temperature of the nose cone and certain areas of the leading edges of wings and tail, at cruise speed, will be around 1000º C. While this seems an insurmountable engineering challenge, it must be recalled other surfaces are much cooler, at an average of 200º C. Fire-men and woman sustain temperatures up to and over 1200º C several times a week, with less than half an inch of protective cloth keeping out this heat: some of it to bare skin - for extended periods.
While hypersonic flight has been dramatised in the past by aviation journalists citing flights from Sydney to London in just over an hour; this just is not able to be tolerated by normal passengers such as the young and old.
Neecenow’s acceleration curves are gradual and barely perceptible, with a computer-controlled ride-slope, accelerating at a comfortable rate, about the same as a family car accelerating to the speed limit. Deceleration will be at a similar sustained rate will hard to notice physically. The aircraft will climb at a faster speed, reducing the need for a steep climb angle.
Briggs completed the most intensive study of high altitude depressurisation ever conducted before progressing with its hypersonic airliner programme beyond a concept stage: this was a world first. The possibility if a depressurisation incident at hypersonic speed and altitude was a daunting prospect. By limiting the cruise speed to Mach 7.4 and at altitudes of up to 150,000 feet, Briggs created a safety precedent in establishing the envelop to enable safe descent from cruise height and speed to be under 14,000 feet altitude and transonic speed within ninety seconds of any depressurisation emergency.
How does one decelerate from Mach 7.4 to subsonic speed to the safe altitude of under 14,000 feet in the short time of two minutes or less? The answer lies in the fact the high cruise speed of Neecenow is a true airspeed, not an indicated air-speed. At Neecenow cruise altitudes the air is so thin the relative airspeed in comparison to sea level is much less. This means the deceleration required even in an emergency is safe enough for similar to a family car, and thus safe enough for passengers of any age or fitness. At around a family cars braking deceleration, the aircraft can be at a safe speed and height in about one minute.
This is a fully automated procedure to ensure no euphoric effects of hypoxia prevent descent to safe altitude. The pilot reaction time required is too short to have a manual system. A smooth, minimal acceleration manoeuvre will take place simultaneously reducing speed through reducing the power and thrust to idle, and gently rolling turning and pitching while descending, the drag of which will reduce speed from the drag of the fuselage, known as an energy-depleting manoeuvre.
Considerations for such emergencies have been made also, the contingency of being over water or a pole at low speed and possibly high fuel consumption was made in design studies for the former hypersonic engine design programme. Neecenow types will feature a reserve fuel catering to this consideration above normal fuel reserves.
Pressure monitoring equipment will be aboard in different locations to nearly instantly detect losses in air pressure. To prevent false alarms and overcome mechanical defects there will be placed all over the aircraft and set at several levels of alert to avoid descent for any small leak. Seepage losses will be less than typical airliners due to the near windowless fuselage: pressurised air can escape through window seals. There will be several instruments at each location to provide redundancy from failure.
Passengers will have a lap-sash seatbelt restraint, which will also boost safety during any other incidents. During depressurisation emergencies, the horizon reference in either the passengers portable television eyewear, or other entertainment/display screen will show the aircraft in level flight to help them remain calm. Emergency briefings will be screened to show the use of oxygen equipment, which the passengers will be alerted to. Standby power of these headsets will enable such briefings even if aircraft avionics is lost.
The meal delivery trolleys are designed to prevent mishaps during depressurisation emergencies or turbulence. Internal pressure walls similar in concept to water-tight doors will retain pressure in the aircraft, the pressurisation system only increasing effort in the breached section. The fuselage lining will form a retardant to plug leaks similar to how self-sealing fuel tanks work, forming another redundancy to this rare event. The cabin will have dividers to limit the amount of pressurised air lost during a hull breach.
The Neecenow hypersonic airliners have foundation in the century's experience of aerospace design, so much so as the AFG and ARFG are likely to be the safest aircraft ever.
The production budget of both the AFG and ARFG is offset by the J2000 programme, which provides a reduced purchase cost to airlines for all types of the AFG and ARFG, while the HYT gets the benefits of a type built to commercial airline safety standards.
ARFG, AFG and the J2000 programmes will share technology to lower overall production costs including various composites in the skin and fabrication of the aircraft incorporating a similar configuration.
Materials and equipment that will isolate the passengers and crew from the external environment, such as heat and radiation can be co-developed. Production costs of all three types kept is reasonably cheap, despite the technology leap and particularly with high cycle rates or numbers of flights considered.
Purchase costs are expected to be:
ARFG (each): $500 million
AFG (each): $210 million
This figure matches or betters the total cost of the average number of subsonic these types replace, excluding the fuel, crew and multitude of other cost savings the type offers once in service.
Briggs is developing power plants for Neecenow and the J2000 HYT via the FXG Vancoollins test aircraft, funded by Aceson. Even equipped with Scramjets, depending on the distance flown, AFG and ARFG will likely use up to 70% less fuel than current types, a significant benefit to the atmosphere and greenhouse emissions. Briggs development process will ensure the power plant is the most efficient, while being cost efficient to buy and operate.
The FXG Vancoollins derived engines will be the lightest and most powerful air and spacecraft engine will be built.
Hypersonic flight will benefit the medical world in many ways.
One of the most obvious means hypersonic speed will benefit medicine is via donor organs. Presently most transplant organs have “lives” of around 5 hours from donation. This means vital organs for transplant patients are generally restricted within national borders.
Neecenow is only 3 hours flying time away, at most. This enables the transportation of organs organs to and from the airport to arrive in time for transplant surgery, from anywhere in the world. This permits a global organ waiting list, rather than the present national ones, reducing patient waiting times, worldwide.
Hypersonic flight ends potentially fatal venous thromboembolisms, including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolus; basically blood clots, particularly in older people, known to form in veins during long seated times with fatal consequences. The risk of this occurring doubles after 4-seated hours, with AFG and ARFG maximum flight duration 3 hours.